An important part of the shredder waste is the mineral fraction. This fraction consists primarily of sand and glass, which is screened from the shredder waste in small particles. This will yield about 6,100 tonnes of material in 2014. The minerals are used in various ways as raw materials. Basalt rocks can be made using high-quality melting technology. The minerals are also used as road bed in road construction. A small part of the mineral fraction (about 400 tonnes) still contains metals such as iron and copper. An external party further processes this fraction to recycle the metals. The Dutch fact sheets for the mineral fraction (factsheet minerals 0-1 mm and factsheet minerals 1-4 mm) give even more information.
Thanks to the advances in technology, the various metals are already mostly separated from the shredder waste of an end-of-life vehicle at the shredder companies. Thus the fraction recovered from metals in the PST plant is relatively small. A total of about 1,400 tonnes of different metals are recycled every year, such as iron, stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as copper and aluminium. Smaller iron particles are removed from the shredder waste magnetically at the beginning of the separation process. A so-called eddy current separates the aluminium from the rest of the metals. Fibre material contains a relatively small amount of copper, which is separated by the impact crusher.
After separation, the iron recovered is processed into a low-quality type of steel which is suitable for reinforcement of concrete structures, for example. Materials such as stainless steel and aluminium are further purified and ‘cleaned’ entirely by an external partner. A cable granulation company handles processing of copper, which is subsequently melted into high-quality copper in a copper smelter.
For further information click on the Duth fact sheet for the metal fraction.
An end-of-life vehicle contains a great deal of fibre material. These materials can be found, among other places, in the seat, the top liner, the rear shelf, in the finishing of dashboards and the safety belts. The PST plant produces about 7,000 to 8,000 tonnes of fibre material as raw material annually. This fraction is now used as fuel with energy recovery. Together with its research partners, ARN has by now found useful applications for a great deal of this material. A good example of sheeting material that can be used in construction.
For further information please click on the Dutch fact sheet for the fibre fraction.
There are many types of plastic. There are more than 20 types of plastics in a car alone. ARN uses sink-or-swim tanks to separate these plastics from one another. Heavier plastics are separated here from the lighter types. In the end three plastic flows, each with its own different composition and density, are created during the processing route in the PST plant. Depending on the composition, the plastic is further processed by external partners.